Gastrointestinal microbiota may shape the adaptation of their hosts to different habitats and lifestyles, thereby driving their evolutionary diversification. It remains unknown if gastrointestinal microbiota diverge in congruence with the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts. To evaluate the phylosymbiotic relationships, here we analyzed the compositions of fecal microbiota of seven Cervinae species raised in the Chengdu Zoo. All sampled animals were kept in the same environmental condition and fed identical fodder for years. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were dominant in their fecal microbiota. Even though some bacteria (e.g., Ruminococcaceae) were found to be common in the feces of all investigated species, some genera (e.g., Sharpea and Succinivibrio) were only observed in animals with particular digestive systems. As for the intraspecies variations of microbial communities, only a few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared among replicates of the same host species although they accounted for most of the total abundance. Correlation was observed between the fecal microbiota divergence and host phylogeny, but they were not congruent completely. This may shed new light on the coevolution of host species and their microbiota.